Tuesday, August 25, 2015

Concept of Fertility and Reproduction

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Fertility: The term fertility is used in demography to indicate the actual reproductive performance of an individual, a couple, a group or a population.
In demography, fertility is used in relation to the actual production of children or occurrences of births.
Specially fertility is the measure of reproductive performance of women as obtained from statistics, of the number of live births.
Fertility is the frequency of child bearing among the population.
Fecundity: Fecundity is a biological potentiality, the physiological capacity for bearing children. The ability of a woman of bearing child is defined as her fecundity.
Reproduction:
Reproduction refers to the ability of the population to replace itself and to grow. The study of reproduction considers the process of birth and death together and tries to extend to which the rate of child bearing is sufficiently great to counterbalance.
In other words, the study of reproduction is the study of the net balance between  fertility and mortality in a population.
The extent to which a population replaces itself by birth is called reproduction.
Difference between birth rate and fertility rate:
Birth rate refers to the rate of incidence of births within the total population and it is not a probability.
Fertility rate refers to the incidence of births within the female population aged 15-49 years and it is a probability.
Measure of Fertility/ Methods of finding fertility ratio:
1. Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
According to Barclay, the CBR is a ratio of total registered live births to total population is some specific year multiplied by 1000.
CBR = B/P) × 1000.
Where, B = Total number of of births registered during a calendar year.
P = Mid year population, K = 1000
CBR measures the overall population growth. But it is not  very good index for comparing levels of fertility.
CBR is affected by the composition of the population with regard to age, sex/gender and marital status.
2. General Fertility Rate (GFR)
3. Age Specific Fertility Rate (ASFR)
4. Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
5. Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR)
6. Cohort Fertility Rate (CFR)
7. Standardized Fertility Rate (SFR)

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