Friday, August 28, 2015

Concept & Measures of Mortality

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The ‘World Health Organization’ has defined death as –‘All live born infants should be registered and counted as such irrespective of the  gestation and if they die at any time following birth they should also be registered as death.
HAUSER and DUNCAN defined death, ‘death prior to complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, the death is indicated by the fact that after such separation of foetus does not breath or does not show any other evidence of life such as
- breathing of hearth
- pulsation
- definite movement of voluntary muscles.
Necessity of Mortality Rate:
1. By mortality rate, it becomes possible to study the problem of widowhood, orphans etc.
2. With the help of this data we know about the society i.e. social evils, economic strains, providing of adequate facilities.
3. With this data we can understand about medical facilities.
4. By mortality data it becomes possible to make comparison between past & vision of future.
5. In the words of BARCLAY, "The most successful efforts of demographic measurement have been made in the study of mortality. This was the first subject brought under rigorous analysis and has found commercial applications in the field of insurance."

Analysis of Mortality Statistics:
a. Crude Death Rate (CDR):
Where, D = Deaths registered in a year.
P = Population of an area in that year or mid year population.
Merits of CDR:
i. It becomes possible to reduce the death rate into one figure only.
ii. Calculation is easy.
iii. It is widely used index of the level of mortality.
Demerits of CDR:
i. In it, many population groups which have varied death rate are combined together. That is why sometimes this is not so much reliable.
ii. According to BARCLAY, "CDR does not indicate the rates of occurrences of event but mix them up together with changes in population size."

b. Age Specific Death Rate (ASDR):
Where, D = no. of deaths in a specific section of population of an area in a given period.
P = Total population of that specific area in the same period.
The ASDR is defined as the number of deaths per year per 1000 population of a given age group, usually by sex.
Main drawback of CDR is that it completely ignores the age & sex distribution of the population.

Merits of ASDR:
i. ASDR contributes enormously to the study of mortality.
ii. It overcomes the drawback of CDR.
iii. For general analytical purposes, the ASDR is one of the most important widely applicable type of death rate.
Demerits of ASDR:
In the situation of comparison regarding mortality situation in two different regions, the ASDR has not much utility.

Crude Rate of Natural Increase (CRNI):
CRNI = CBR - CDR
This is a measure of current rate of net migration & is not substantial.   

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