Thursday, May 7, 2015

Demography 2.1: Methods and Sources of Data Callection

Methods & Sources of Data Collection:
A census of population may be defined as “ total process of collecting, compiling & publishing demographic, economic & social data pertaining at a specific time or times to all persons in a country or delimited territory. According to V M Dandakar, “ A census of population is the total process of collecting, compiling, evaluating, analyzing & publishing demographic, economic & social data pertaining at a specific time to all persons or in a delimited part of the country."
There are two important census techniques:
1. De Facto Method &
2. De Jure Method
Note: A De Jure count of the total population is the enumeration of persons who usually reside in a given place. A De Facto count is the enumeration of persons physically present at specified place on census night.
1. De Facto Method: It is one of the census techniques. Under this system, a date is fixed for taking census of the whole country. Usually such an operation is conducted at night because it is felt that after day long work people will come back to their homes at night. Such a night is called census night. This night is very carefully selected.
At this night all those who are found anywhere are counted. When the people actually present are counted at the same moment in a census technically that is called De Facto Population.
Since the census is completed on a particular date, it is also called Date System or One Night Enumeration System.
Merits of De Facto Method:
This method is quiet simple as well as clear.
Disadvantages:
i. Under this system floating population is not counted & the data becomes inaccurate.
ii. This system needs a large number of well qualified & trained field workers.
iii. Night time is the rest time & enumerator/invigilator is not welcomed at home.

2. De Jure Method:

Under this, every person in an area is personally counted & information obtained from him/her. Temporary resident is not included in it. Whoever is enumerated, his/her permanent place of residence is considered. Usually census work is completed within 2 or 3 weeks.
Merits of De Jure Method:
1. Since period is 2/3 weeks so chances of inaccuracy is little bit short.
2. Many question regarding gender, age, social conditions can be asked.
Demerits:
1. Under this system permanent residence, household etc are to be defined. It is difficult to define uniformly.
2. It becomes difficult to collect information in respect of those who have no permanent residence.

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